RED SEA THE BERLIN PRINCIPLE
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Protein skimming is one of the easiest ways to improve water quality in saltwater systems by facilitating two major processes - gas exchange and export of organic wastes. While the actual physics and chemistry of the process are very complex, the basics are relatively easy to understand. When air bubbles are introduced into a water column, chemical interactions cause organic protein molecules to become attached to charged air bubbles. These protein-laden droplets coalesce into a thick foam which rises to the top of the column and is "skimmed" off into a collection cup. An efficient protein skimmer removes the maximum amount of waste in the shortest time possible. In short, the main factors which influence a protein skimmer's effectiveness are bubble size, bubble quantity, and quality contact time.

Red Sea Fish pHarm's famous Berlin Skimmer uses a patented triple-pass technique that efficiently concentrates and removes waste. The triple-pass method is combined with a powerful venturi air injector to produce a high quantity of fine air bubbles that greatly enhances the efficiency of the skimmer. Air bubbles and protein rich water are concentrated in the narrow inner tube, ensuring good mixing and maximum surface contact. The air/water mixture swirls up the inner tube into a wider reaction chamber where the protein rich foam rises into the collection cup. The air bubbles down the reaction chamber by the force of the water current until reaching an air return skirt at its base. The skirt effectively enlarges the diameter of the chamber, eliminating the downward force on the air bubbles. The bubbles then rise up through the chamber against the downward counter current flow of water, causing great turbulence and significantly increased contact time. The result is an incredibly efficient skimmer that maximizes contact time, removes the most organic protein possible and thoroughly oxy genates the water.

The legendary efficiency of the Berlin has made this the best selling skimmer line in the world. Red Sea offers five versions, with just the right model for any tank size, configuration and budget.

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